General Self-Efficacy Scale

The General Self-Efficacy Scale is a 10-item psychometric scale that is designed to assess optimistic self-beliefs to cope with a variety of difficult demands in life. In contrast to other scales that were designed to assess optimism, this one explicitly refers to personal agency, i.e., the belief that one's actions are responsible for successful outcomes.


Permission is granted to use the General Self-Efficacy Scale for non-commercial research and development purposes. The scale may be shortened and/or modified to meet the particular requirements of the research context.


Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston, Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35-37). Windsor, England: NFER-NELSON.


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1. I can always manage to solve difficult problems if I try hard enough

2. If someone opposes me, I can find the means and ways to get what I want

3. It is easy for me to stick to my aims and accomplish my goals

4. I am confident that I could deal efficiently with unexpected events

5. Thanks to my resourcefulness, I know how to handle unforeseen situations

6. I can solve most problems if I invest the necessary effort

7. I can remain calm when facing difficulties because I can rely on my coping abilities

8. When I am confronted with a problem, I can usually find several solutions

9. If I am in trouble, I can usually think of a solution

10. I can usually handle whatever comes my way